Explaining Byzantine Agreement, Fault ... - The Bitcoin News

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

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1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
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Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

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Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
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The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
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One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
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However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
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The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
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General info and list of exchanges for yezcoin

Real World Problems Related to Blockchain There have been several studies that look at the problems that may cause the delay in the adoption of the blockchain technology in the real-world applications, particularly the cryptocurrencies. 1. A large portion of the public have a negative impression towards cryptocurrencies, and blockchain, because of the past illegal activities associated with them. 2. Some cryptocurrency companies and exchanges are not fully compliant with government regulations due to the lack of will to change the status quo. 3. The existing architectures are not optimally scalable, and therefore may fail to serve up to larger groups of users. 4. The implementations of blockchain technology at many existing exchanges suffer from the trades-off between speed and security. 5. Complicated and error-prone processes can result in the loss of funds and lead to unhappy customers. 6. Digital wallet technology puts the burden on users to memorize and safeguard their wallet keys. 7. Small and medium size cryptocurrency exchanges face a liquidity dilemma. Customers expect liquidity but the exchanges won’t have enough liquidity unless they have more customers. Yezcoin Platform Solutions With our full awareness of the problems, we commit to providing the solutions to them. Yezcoin Platform is our brainchild that we proudly introduce to the blockchain community. 1. Yezcoin Platform assures that proper “know-your-customer (KYC)” and “anti-money laundering (AML)” are implemented with the blockchain technology 100% compliant with all government regulations. 2. Yezcoin Platform’s exchange model is a hybrid of a speedy centralized and a securely decentralized models. Yezcoin Platform can achieve the balance between the strengths of both models.
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3 3. Our expertise in advanced mobile technology allows an efficient mobile blockchain implementation that will allow users to participate in Yezcoin Platform using mobile phones. 4. With a 2-factor authentication process plus biometrics authentication, in addition to screening for fraud and blacklisted sites, Yezcoin Platform can provide customers with peace-of-mind security. 5. We mitigate the risk of private key management with multi-signature signing technology. Yezcoin Platform customers can manage their private keys via their biometric data. 6. Our 24/7 customer services will ensure that our help is always a click away. 7. Yezcoin Platform is forming a Cryptocurrency Exchange Alliance where cryptocurrency exchanges will benefit from high liquidity and a larger pool of customers. The Yezcoin Platform To achieve all the solutions we promise, Yezcoin Platform, by Yezcoin, is developed using several state-of-the-art technologies exist today for the future. Yezcoin = Hybrid Exchange + KYC & AML + Biometrics ID + Smart AI + Mobile Blockchain Yezcoin Hybrid Exchange A centralized exchange is generally fast but less secured, while a decentralized exchange is secure with lower speed. There is room in the middle to balance speed and security by storing sensitive information on the chain while performing order matching off of the chain. This way Yezcoin will have the speed of centralized model and the world class security of a decentralized model. KYC & AML Know Your Customer (KYC) and Anti Money Laundering (AML) rules have been the focus of government regulators trying to combat illegal activities in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Unfortunately, existing cryptocurrency companies inherited KYC & AML issues since the birth of Bitcoin. As of now, no blockchain companies are able to claim that they are fully compliant with KYC & AML. Yezcoin will be the first company that is 100% KYC & AML compliant. Biometrics ID Biometric information usage has been increasing. Most modern smartphones come with Biometrics login capabilities. Enabling Biometrics ID to unlock a digital wallet is the next logical step. Many users have lost access to their wallets due to the loss of private keys. Yezcoin is using its proprietary encrypted Biometrics ID management solution to allow customers to unlock their digital wallets and securely manage their Biometrics ID. Smart AI Each cryptocurrency exchange trade comes with at least two options when making a purchase: 1) purchase with other cryptocurrency and pay full price; 2) purchase with the exchange currency and get a discounted price. Not all cryptocurrencies can be traded from every
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4 exchange and some cryptocurrencies are only available on certain exchanges. There are many options and complicated steps involved in a cryptocurrency trading transaction. Among many options, there is an optimal path where the customer will pay the lowest fee for the same transaction. Yezcoin’s Smart AI will perform all complicated calculations and selections and only present the customer with the best deal for both buying and selling. Mobile Blockchain Mobile devices have become a part of modern life and are increasing in power day by day. Unfortunately, the requirements to run blockchain nodes are too demanding. Yezcoin is working with blockchain experts and mobile engineers to enable our blockchain solution to run on mobile devices. It is a challenging but vital next step that must be achieved if we want the world to adopt blockchain technology. It must work on mobile devices and Yezcoin is committed to making it happen. Yezcoin Scam Detector and International Sanctions Check The cryptocurrency market has grown tremendously since 2017. A vast amount of funding has been invested into cryptocurrency. Sadly, the high growth in the market has attracted fraud as well. Criminals will impersonate someone who is a cryptocurrency market influencer and pretend that they are running a campaign to give back to investors only after investors send them the requested cryptocurrency. Thousands of investors have become victims of these scams. Furthermore, with the ease of transferring money, funding of these illegal activities has been on the rise and the use of an International Sanctions List has become less effective. To address these issues, Yezcoin has developed features to verify every account whether it matches any published International sanctions information at the registration and also to alert users if the sending wallet address matches one of 3,000+ known scammer addresses. NEO and the Solution for Scalability Yezcoin is using NEO Blockchain to support our proprietary identity management solution because we believe that NEO is our best solution. There are a number of blockchain platforms offering different approaches. Among those, NEO stands out with high throughputs, a supportive community and scalable solutions. NEO provides a node program, Blockchain Explorer, SDK Development Kit, Smart Contract Compiler and IDE Plugin, decentralized applications. One of the highlights of NEO’s solution is the DBFT consensus algorithm. Consensus NEO’s consensus algorithm, Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (DBFT), is an improved version of classic Byzantine Fault Tolerance for scalability.
EXCHANGE LIST
Binance
Huobi
Kucoin
Bibox
Qryptos
Satoexchange
BIGone
Bitrue
Bilaxy
Bit-Z
Linkcoin
SECURE WALLET
Ledgerwallet
Trezor
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El Problema del General Bizantino y blockchain Byzantine General's Problem ARE WE CRAZY? Arguments against cryptocurrencies and Bitcoin. Future prediction! The Byzantine Generals Problem - An Intro To Blockchain ... What is NEO? - dBFT (Part 2) Byzantine Agreement Bitcoin einfach erklärt Teil 1 - Der byzantinische Fehler WHAT IS PRACTICAL BYZANTINE FAULT TOLERANCE pBFT IN HINDI? Tutorial 2 : Byzantines's General Problem Ethereum Executes Blockchain Hard Fork to Byzantium  ETH $343

Byzantine Generals’ Problem. The Byzantine Generals’ Problem (BFT) was discussed in 1982 by Shostak, Pease, and Lamport generalizes the Two Generals Problem published in 1975. In a nutshell, the Two Generals’ problem involves two generals preparing to attack an enemy but less likely to win due to lacking in the number of armies compared ... Binance, the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchange by market cap, will utilize the sophisticated Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (dBFT) for its upcoming Binance Chain product, as seen on a Youtube video released on December 4, 2018.. Building a Robust Product. First revealed in a tweet last week, Binance Chain is a native blockchain that strives to offer a highly-scalable distributed ... Consequentemente, o desafio central do Byzantine General’s Problem é de que as mensagens podem de alguma forma atrasar, serem destruídas ou perdidas. Além disso, mesmo que uma mensagem seja entregue com sucesso, um ou mais generais podem escolher (por qualquer motivo) agir de forma maliciosa ou enviar uma mensagem fraudulenta para confundir outros generais, levando a um desastre total. Wenn Sie Bitcoin bereits an einer Börse oder an einem anderen Ort aufbewahren, können Sie diese Gelder jetzt in Ihre Electrum-Wallet überweisen. In diesem Fall wird ein sehr kleiner Transfer empfohlen. Erwarten Sie Fehler beim Erlernen von Electrum, besonders wenn Sie neu bei Bitcoin sind. Es ist weitaus besser, Ihre Klumpen zu nehmen, wenn Sie sich mit dem Wechselgeld befassen, als wenn ... Investors, enthusiasts, and data geeks visiting the markets.Bitcoin.com can seamlessly buy or trade tokens while the swapping of digital assets is also possible with the Bitcoin.com Wallet. Byzantine Generals’ Problem. The Byzantine Generals’ Problem (BFT) was discussed in 1982 by Shostak, Pease, and Lamport generalizes the Two Generals Problem published in 1975. In a nutshell, the Two Generals’ problem involves two generals preparing to attack an enemy but less likely to win due to lacking in the number of armies compared ... Das Byzantine Generals Problem ist ein Begriff aus der Informatikbeschreibung einer Situation, in der sich die beteiligten Parteien auf eine einzige Strategie einigen müssen, um ein völliges Scheitern zu vermeiden, aber einige der beteiligten Parteien korrupt sind und falsche Informationen verbreiten oder anderweitig unzuverlässig sind.

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El Problema del General Bizantino y blockchain

This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue The Byzantine Generals Problem and Blockchain Consensus Models ... Mike Maloney S1 • E8 From Bitcoin To Hedera Hashgraph (Documentary) Hidden Secrets Of Money Episode 8 - Duration: 1:14:26 ... In this tutorial we will learn about the Byzantines's General Problem. Skip navigation Sign in. Search In diesem Vieo geht es um den ersten Teil um Bitcoin zu verstehen. Hier erkläre ich dir das Konsens Probelm welches jedes dezentrale Zahlungssystem lösen muss. Hier findest du einen Artikel zum ... Byzantine Agreement is a fundamental problem in distributed computing, that is--design a protocol to bring processors to agreementon a bit despite a fraction of bad processors behaving to disrupt ... The Byzantine Generals Problem and Blockchain Consensus Models ... BITCOIN Basico: Problema de los Generales Bizantinos Explicación sencilla - Duration: 4:54. Crypto Sheinix 236 views. 4:54. EL ... Neon wallet: https: ... The Byzantine Generals Problem and Blockchain Consensus Models A Deep Dive - Duration: 18:25. Avery Carter 15,788 views. 18:25. Bitcoin and Byzantine Generals ... To learn more about Blockchain, please visit the full district0x education portal here: https://education.district0x.io/ Learning about Blockchain, Bitcoin a... Lost wallets - Most people are not ready to take full responsibility for their assets and are not able to manage their private keys securely. A lot of Bitcoin have been lost or stolen. A lot of ...

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